Goodluck Jonathan: Leader Profile

Today we look at Goodluck Jonathan, President of Nigeria. Nigeria is important to look at because:

  • Nigeria has the largest economy in Africa
  • Nigeria is the largest OPEC country in Africa relying heavily on oil revenue
  • Democratic presidential elections are to be held in March 2015 and has a risk of violence
  • The violent group, Boko Haram has operations in Northern Nigeria
  • Nigeria is around 50% larger than Afghanistan
  • Nigeria is a country with two significantly large distinct religious groups
  • The median age of Nigeria’s population is 18-19 years old
  • Nigeria has significant diasporas in Europe and the United States
  • Nigeria has a history of violent struggle, weak democratic institutions and corruption
  • China and Nigeria have a significant trading relationship under the current regime

Nigeria’s economic and demographic profile has all the ingredients for fragmentation, state fragility/failure and harbouring extremism. Should Nigeria devolve as a result of weak and failed leadership, the implications for the region and interested economic and cultural partners around the world could be significant.

Background of Nigeria

The Leader Profile

  • Name: Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan
  • Born: November 1957
  • Religion: Christian
  • Family: Wife, 2 Children
  • Languages: English, Izon, Nembe, Epie-Atissa, Ogbia and others
Goodluck Jonathan

Goodluck Jonathan

 

 

 

 

 

 

Education:

  • Canoe making
  • University of Port Harcourt Zoology B.Sc.
  • University of Port Harcourt Hydrobiology M.Sc.
  • University of Port Harcourt PhD (Incomplete)

Career:

  • Education inspector
  • Lecturer
  • Deputy Governer of Bayelsa (1999-2005)
  • Governor of Bayelsa (2005-2007)
  • Vice President (2007-2010)
  • Acting presedent (2010-2011)
  • President (2011-2015)

Extra Curricular

  • Football (Soccer)
  • Environmental protection officer
  • Canoe maker (as a child)

Opponents:

  • Tam David-West (Petrol subsidies)
  • Ibrahim Babangida(Former military president)
  • Northern factions within his People’s Democratic Party(PDP)
  • Henry Okah (Niger Delta guerrilla leader)
  • Mohammed Yusuf (Boko Haram leader)

Allies:

  • Chinese premiership
  • African Leaders
  • Southern factions within PDP

 

Goodluck Jonathan is described in some sources as beleaguered, embattled, powerless and lacking confidence. Despite these descriptions, Jonathan’s party, the PDP, has enjoyed widespread popularity inside his cogoodluck J3untry and in reputable polls. He wears a hat in all of his public appearances. This is a traditional bit of symbolism employed by some African leaders to show high status and poise. It is a quietly stated crown. He will usually wear a black trilby. In his own words “You can tell the character of a man by the hat he wears, and how he wears it.”. He has also said, “I was very weak, but once I discovered the secrets of hats, I was able to transform myself into a bold and confident person.”

 

President Jonathan is not a natural speaker, he is soft spoken and can often be seen reading from prepared notes. When speaking interactively and formally he can sometimes display a lack clarity and will sometimes spend a lot of time speaking in general terms rather than addressing the question or point. When confronted, Jonathan will fold his arms and his eyes dart around when being firm strongly suggesting that he would always prefer to avoid conflict.

Jonathan adopts a feet-forward, leaning, slouch when being interviewed and usually has to adjust himself when he slips too far down into his seat. His face is very animated, easily displaying a range of emotions from anger and annoyance, to pleasure and confidence. He tends to gesticulate with only one had and usually within the frame of his own body.  Along with his laced fingers, these are indicative of marked introversion and ongoing internal dialogues. He shows a lot of evidence of being very intelligent and on the topics that he is comfortable with he can easily speak about with great confidence and knowledge. While his conversations are reactive in nature (rather than active) they are usually very thoughtful. His impromptu speeches are usually punctuated with the “intellectual stammer” displayed by university professors and American president, Barak Obama.

Goodluck Johnson is fond of using examples, imagery and allegory in his conversations. He communicates best with representations.

Despite many speeches promising decisive actions, Jonathan tends to be very pensive in his political life. He is collaborative in his approach, depending on alliances and consensus rather than using personal charisma to get things done. Another contradiction is that Goodluck Jonathan will not “confront” the issues head on. In interviews he appears very pained to confront interviewers. For Jonathan, Boko Haram, Corruption and the economy are best tackled with logic, systematic and consensus driven structures which will “take time”.

Jonathan-Goodluck-1Jonathan is also wary of Africa’s history of strongmen. He stresses building systems as opposed to executive action. In his words, “leadership in Africa had failed on two important counts: (1) To Institutionalise democracy so that government was run transparently and for the benefit of the people; and (2) To inculcate, by personal example, in public officials and the general public values and codes of behavior consistent with operating a modern democratic nation- state.” Statements like these shows that he has little taste for personal power and legacy building.

Like many democratic African leaders, the prospects of civil war, military dictatorship and coup-de-tat looms in the background of President Jonathan’s mind. While religious and ethnic tensions are downplayed (especially with Boko Haram) Nigeria is notably a federalized country with literally hundreds of divisions between the oil rich south and Muslim north. Jonathan is from the south but he is not from a strongman or military background. Allegiances to him are based around the traditional allegiance to the PDP rather than his Ijaw ethnicity or Christian religion.

President Goodluck Jonathan presents as an introverted intuitive thinker who tends to withhold judgement and delay on important decisions. This would make him and INTP using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator.

If correct, then Jonathan is quiet and analytical who prefers to spend long periods of time on his own or with his very close relations. He is scientifically minded and enjoyed helping the environment and people in his career. While his hat wearing is customary, the wearing of a western hat is a way of him ensuring that he stands out. Similarly while his hats are often western, he does not dress western, and tends to wear dark coloured but otherwise West African style clothing. This indicates that he is “bucking” at both trends of being “too African” or “too Western”. He will be consultative and rely on a wide variety of sources for opinions and support. He is charming and witty when among people that he gets along with. He will be very reluctant to get into a situation that he may fail at and will often seek regional and international support for any situation that he thinks is too much for him to handle.

Jonathan is very intelligent. He can grasp and convey many very complex ideas and this is tempered by how thorough he is willing to explain these complex ideas, which can be too much for the purpose of the situation. His keen observations on other international actors allows him to always give appropriate responses to situations within his country, regionally and internationally.

Jonathan lacks a bombstic and iconoclastic personality. He also suffers from the same affliction that many leaders from the African continent suffer: There is a lack of confidence to act on the international stage. There is also likely to be a complex of inferiority when addressing the former colonial, military and economically superior powers.

Jonathan comes from a strong Christian background. He will usually use religious overtones in his speeches and justifications for his actions. The only place that Jonathan is seen without his hat will be in a church. Goodluck does not use religion as a divisive tool however and seems to use it as merely an identifier. Pentecostal and protestant Christianity is a strong influence in southern Nigeria.

Themes and Quotes:

Oil and the Economy

 Nigeria is a member of OPEC and is the biggest exporter in Africa. Oil revenues accounted for around  75% of budgetary revenues and 95% of export revenues in 2013 (World Bank) and around 15% of GDP. One of Jonathan’s aims is to diversify the Nigerian economy away from oil revenue and to agriculture to feed his young and growing population. Jonathan has made tentative efforts to control corruption surrounding the oil industry which is owned and operated by multinational, American and European companies. He helped to negotiate peace talks with the Niger Delta rebels who are part of his ethnicity. His approach to stolen oil is that this is being stolen for large foreign companies who knowingly refine and profit from the proceeds of crime. In this regard, he takes a long view to solving the problem.

Nigeria has China as a significant trading partner. Nigerian polls indicate that the country has one of the most pro-Chinese populations in the world. In the past decade, China has secured oil deals and contributed to infrastructure and military developments. This relationship is an obvious threat to Western interests.

“Oil companies investing 1 billion in project and less than 100,000 in local economy.”

“focus on diversification of non oil aspects of our economy”

“Agriculture is key because it employs (people)”

“we are intervening massively in agriculture.”

“Now we have mortgage and financing”

“Ordinarily by now, Nigerians needn’t be talking about power, because most of you who have been to Nigeria, you see the volume of gas we burn every day from the oil industry activities. If we even have to convert 50 percent of the gas we burn to power, I don’t think we’ll be talking about power.”

“The international community must support Nigeria”

“The stolen crude is refined abroad”

“We have privatized….(electricity and other infrastructure)”

Boko Haram

Northern Nigeria is primarily populated by muslims. Jonathan sees the threat of Boko Haram as a terror threat and not a religious one. He sees it also as a regional and an international threat rather than a local one. He does not see the threat as one to the integrity of Nigeria or to the main part of the Nigerian population. Though he is quick to compartmentalise the problem, he continuously calls on international aid to counter the threat and seems unwilling to dedicate himself or the Nigerian Army to unilateral action. Accusations of brutality by the armed forces may also be a factor in staying his hand. Failures by “greater powers” to controlled insurgencies (references to Afghanistan, Iraq, Yemen, etc.) is also part of his rational for not taking a more violent approach to addressing the group.

“Boko Haram is a local terror group”

“We should not play politics with Boko Haram”

“Overall it does not effect the Nigerian Economy”

“Some are not Nigerians but most are Nigerian”

“Just criminal elements”

“It worries me”

“Issue of Terror is imported from North Africa”

“reduce the collateral damage on the population”

“We are trying, I don’t want to rate myself.”

“We have the political will to get where we are going.”

“They have violated the culture and peaceful way of life in our country which took generations to build”.

“We are committed to working with other nations, other friendly governments to make sure we contain the problem in Mali.”

“We call on the rest of the world to work with us.”

 

Corruption

9 in 10 Nigerians suspect their government is corrupt. Faith in the electoral process is very low. Jonathan also takes a very systematic approach to corruption. He is very reluctant to go after corrupt individuals and confronting it head on. Instead he has made tactical moves in his own party and with legislation to cut off the sources of corruption. He is a big believer in making processes more transparent and recorded in order to prevent future corruption. One source of corruption was the fuel subsidy, allowing actors within Nigeria to buy cheap fuel and then sell it at full price outside of the country. Jonathan got rid of the subsidy and this proved very unpopular. Similarly, Jonathan calls on consensus and support to combat other forms of corruption (such as oil theft) and graft.

“Killing robbers don’t stop robbery. Throwing people into jail won’t stop corruption.”

“Leave us who have dead to bury our dead.”

“Main issues are corruption”

“And for now our domestic focus must be on electoral reform, delivering peace dividends to the Niger Delta and the rest of the country, and standing strong on our resolve against corruption.”

“The issues of corruption that also bother us is also human factor. In every society, it’s difficult to say you can eradicate corruption. But we’ve set up the machinery to make sure that we continue to reduce it. The war against it will be sustained and will continue.”

“…ensure progressively improved electoral process…”

“Strengthen Institutions to prevent corruption”

“Modern science will prevent corruption”

 

Nigeria

Many of Jonathan’s conversations and speeches suggest that he is taking a long view on Nigeria. He has “written off” the older generation and is creating a Nigeria in which the young population can find opportunity.  Having grown up in civil war and military dictatorships, he does not have a great deal of faith in the people of his generation. He is hoping to put the countries violent and corrupt past behind him. Perhaps drawing from the old testament, he sees himself as a post-Moses leader of the Israelites biding time in the wilderness before leading the new generation to the promised land. He is very cautious not to squander Nigeria’s petroleum based wealth on crowd pleasing gestures or unilateral adventures. His goals for Nigeria a very strategic and far beyond the headlines. Many of his promises in regards to Nigeria are purposely worded so that he makes long term goals seem like short term goals but he will almost always caveat himself with “not done overnight”.

“Nigeria must move forward”

“The young people must redefine this country”

“…..not done overnight”

President Goodluck Jonathan acts as if he is a small player in the bigger movement of his PDP party, Nigerian petroleum wealth, Nigerian development and continuing Islamic terrorism. By all accounts including his own, he is a meek and humble man, an intelligent civil servant who just happens to have executive powers over one of the largest African powers on the continent. That being said, there are many examples of Jonathan making political manoeuvres, strategic promotions and firings to achieve long term goals. Much in the same way as he was a strategic success story, he employs indirect and deliberate actions to achieve his goals.

goodluck J2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

CIA World Fact Book

Fitch Ratings Agency

World Bank

NATO

SIPRI

WTO

CFR think tank

 

 

Bloomberg interview

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S8u979tY5dE

Global Conversations interview

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QcWJTs0Xr2Q

CNN interview

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZlXbkRnvH88

Al Jazeera interview

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nQ56IZjwwns

Speech to voters

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFHRHz_2cho

Media Chat

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TuQ8w5v6Fks

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Alexis Tsipras: Leader Profile

Our first post is going to look newly appointed Prime Minister of Greece Alexis Tsipras. It’s important to look at Tsipras for several reasons:

IMG_0295

· Greece has not ever recovered from the 2007 financial crisis
· Greece is part of the EU and Euro financial system
· Greece has never elected such a leftist party before except maybe in 1985
· Greece has strong trade ties with Russia
· Greece is part of NATO
· Greece is a strong maritime nation (16.2% of worlds merchant fleet)

What happens in Greece has strong influences on Finance, Politics, Security and Trade.

The format of these analyses will be some quick-fire facts about the country and then I will look at the person that now leads it.

Background of Greece

The Leader Profile

Alexis Tsipras

Born: July 1974

Languages, English, Greek, other

Greece Election

Education:

Ampelokipoi Multi-disciplinary High School

Civil Engineering at National technical University of Athens

Urban and Regional Planning at National technical University of Athens

Career:

Construction
Politics
(1999-2003) Synaspismós (political secretary of the youth-wing)
(2004) member of the municipal council of Athens
(2008) Synaspismós (Leader)
(2009) Hellenistic Parliament and SYRIZA
(2012) Leader of the Opposition
(2015) Elected Prime Minister

Extra Curricular:

Student protests in High School

Students union (executive board)

Central Council of the National Students Union of Greece (member)

Opponents are: Neoliberals, Tax cheats, German Hegemony, Golden dawn.

Allies: Sinn Fein, left, plural left, podemos, left bloc, the other europe, the left, left front, left alliance, communist party of bohemia and Moravia, Peoples movement against the EU,

Tsipras is described as charismatic and “far left”. He has a casual style of communication and does not wear a tie. Young Greeks like him because he is young, radical and leftist. He speaks in populist overtones. His critics call him a professional protestor. Born in the 70’s Tsipras has spent a lot of his political life addressing young people and reflecting youthful themes of rebellion, hope and the unfairness of the previous generations. He is influenced by Che Guavera and has even named his youngest son Ernesto in reference to the Argentine rebel.

Tsipras likes to meet big names, even if he has nothing in common with them. Despite Tsipras being an unmarried father, Atheist from a country of 98% Orthodox Christians he went to see Catholic Pope Francis. Despite his animosity with the EU Central Bank he made a big show of visiting Mario Draghi, President of the European Central Bank. He has toured America, Russia and Europe giving popular and populist speeches. He also giving interviews to sympathetic media houses and regularly wrote columns for European newspapers. This was deliberate to raise his profile and gain international funding for the party. He can tone up or down his rhetoric for his audience with goal being to secure relationships. Another notable sympathetic celebrity is Serbian philosopher Slavoj Zizek.

Despite Tsipras’ strong socialist beliefs and speeches he shows a lot of pragmatism and goal oriented behavior. He is genuinely passionate about his country as interviewers have been observed to easily stoke him into an edge of seat and arm gesticulating manner. His rhetoric is strongly tempered by his actions and official policy statement that he has no desire to leave the EU monetary union nor the NATO Alliance. His speeches are designed to appeal to his parties bases of support and his statements are meant to reassure his opponents that he is still reasonable.

When not activated, Alexis Tsipas adopts open handed expressions or steepled fingers which collapse into closed and laced fingers.

The open hands indicate media training, but also genuine expressiveness and the steepled fingers indicate thought. Interestingly his thoughts often turn negative which make sense since he is facing what he calls a ‘humanitarian disaster’ in his country. He feels shame of Greece turning to the World Bank late in 2014 and this actively bothers him. While Tsipras often adopts a very confident stance, he sometimes tucks his feet under the chair suggesting levels of insecurity and tension. The lacing of his fingers also indicate levels of frustration.
Myers Briggs

Alexis Tsipras presents as an Extraverted, Imaginative, Thinker with Judging tendencies which, if correctly assessed, makes him ENTJ in the Myers Briggs Thematic Personality test.

As an ENTJ, his primary mode of leadership will be focused externally, handling his country rationally and logically.

He lives in a world of possibilities where he sees all sorts challenges to be surmounted, he is motivated to be the one responsible for surmounting them. He has a drive for leadership, which is well-served by his quickness for grasping complexities, his ability to absorb a large amount of impersonal information, and his quick and decisive judgments. His biography indicates that he is a “take charge” person.

ENTJs are very forceful, decisive individuals. They make decisions quickly, and are quick to verbalize their opinions and decisions to the rest of the world. This will make interactions with the rest of the EU continuously fraught with tension.

As an ENTJ Alexis Tsipras risks clashing with internal stakeholders in Greece especially the ones that he may see as acting for their own self interest.

He will be prone to quick decisions and he will most likely have to follow up with clarification or adjustments to his initial stance.

Conferenza stampa di Alexis Tsipras leader della sinistra radicale greca

Themes and Quotes:

Greek Debt:

This is a common theme on Alexis Tsipras’ mind. Tsipras’ solution for Greece is to adopt a similar stance to the 1953 Germany agreement where 60% of Debt was written off. The specifics of that agreement suggested that if Germany economy recovers better than expected, additional interest would be paid. Tsipras wants to nationalise the Greek banks and halt privatisation of the public sector. He admits and even laments the corruption within the private sector but insists that it can only be reformed from a centralised and bureaucratic position. He has repeatedly stated that Greece will not default on its obligations even as he continues to negotiate a new arrangement.

Economy:

It will most certainly be the end of austerity and privatisation for a the near future. Tsipras and Syriza are ideologically opposed to these approaches. Much of Tsipras’ term in office will be spent reversing the policies of his predecessors for the economy. Tsipras’ ideological stance is typical left: centralised, big public sector, big benefits and secured pensions. He will go after tax avoiders and big businesses who he thinks are not “carrying their share”. Equally hard will be the reforms and “political patronage” that will exist in the public sector.

“We will not allow a criminal policy”(in reference to austerity)

“We will cancel austerity, because it is criminal”

“Greece has a dysfunctional public sector”

“The rich don’t pay taxes in Greece.”

“I’m talking about people who have sent their money to Switzerland and have evaded taxes”

“We want to nationalize these bank”

“those who ruled the country [before] and threw the country to the rocks, were experienced. But their policies were destructive”

“We have a worldwide financial war and the front is in Greece. Usually the outcome of the battle at the front is determining the outcome of the war”.

“End Austerity and regain democracy”

“If any of the 17 Eurozone members were to exit, the next day the euro would be unsustainable”

“Do what it takes to save our common home”.

Youth

Tsipras grew up in Generation X (between 1965 and 1980) and is more used to instability and uncertainty than previous generations. Divorced parents, single mothers and working mothers was commonplace and though this detail of Alexis Tsipras remains hidden it is possible that this is the case for him as well. Economic turbulence was especially evident in Greece for Generation X which experienced the violent end of a monarchy, 3 years of civil war, British and American involvement in that war, a Military Junta and war with Turkey. He will have similar traits to the rest of the generation making him very independent and resourceful. He has the ability to adapt to a wide range of circumstances and actually feels more at ease in uncertainty.

He appeals to a generation highly disenfranchised from politics and with youth unemployment in Greece at 60% he has an easy task to convince young voters to try a change. Being a politician now in power, he faces the challenge of maintaining the hope of his supporters. Thinking of the disappointment of voters towards Obama and Hollande, Tsipras could easily find himself discarded by his electorate should he waver from his promises or be unable to achieve them quickly enough.

“Being young in Greece feels like a negative, doesn’t it?”

“They didn’t allow 100,000 18-year-olds to vote this time, because they are afraid of you,”

“Old Establish is withering away”

“Solidarity of young women and men”

“It is true that we are not experienced, we don’t want to hide that”

Europe:

Tsipras plans to stay in Europe. The Greek exit of the Union is his “trump card” and “nuclear option”, but he presents as far too pragmatic to actually use it for anything more than a threat or a last resort. That being said, Greece has experienced wars, invasions in his lifetime and he is aware of all of the defaults in modern Greek history under the drachma. He also has spent time studying Argentine defaults. His end game in this regard is to create a situation where Greece remains a part of the union but at the same time unloads the debt via some default-like mechanism but without actually defaulting. Tsipras feels strongly about his country’s reputation and sees himself and Greece as part of a larger ideological and economic struggle. He will also be wary of a possible European countermeasure to push Greece out of the Eurozone using mechanisms that could leave Greece still in debt but without the trading privileges. He will push the possibility of default and exit so long as it remains a credible threat.

“If one country leaves the whole puzzle will collapse”

“Greece is not a third world country”

“…and suddenly a global experiment took place in Greece. The experiment failed we cannot keep on trying it”

“We feel a great deal of responsibility, historic responsibility, not just for the Greek people.”

“Mrs Merkel ultimately just want to promote a strategy for a German Europe, and this is not compatible with the European idea.”

“Europe in the service of human needs”

“Either be democratic or will not exist”

“greatest threat to democracy in Europe is the rise of fascism of neo-nazis”

“The [Greeks] were a people who were at the core of resistance in Europe”

“Eurozone should be saved.”

Politics:

Alexis Tsipras is a leftist and bombastically so. He is socialist minded and likes to imagine big structures. His civil engineering education suggests that he sees the world as big systems at work rather than individuals. He is strongly Anti neo-liberal, and vocally blames conservatives, neo-nazi and fascists for what has happened to Europe and Greece. He feels a responsibility to act for the future of Greece and the leftist movement in Europe. He believes that Europe’s original ideals have been hijacked from its original purpose by a German conservative ideology.

“we are not asking for elections because we are rushing to govern; we ask for elections because the country cannot wait anymore and the people cannot endure anymore”

“It unacceptable and dangerous that the EU political establishment tolerates the Neo-nazi right sector in positions of power in Ukraine.”

“A prime minister in Ukaine giving Nazi style salute”

“Conservative is Neo-Liberal”

“Never before since the end of the cold war has been Europeans been so euroscheptic”

“Alliance for hope and for the people”

“unite”

“When the left unite it does not simply add, it multiplies forces”

“Comrades and friends”

“Hope and change”

“Reject the liberal recipe”

“eurocrisis is crisis of neo-liberal paradigm”

“Solidarity”

“In politics and the economy we are often forced not to be polite…how can we polite to the ones who have caused this crisis”

“return to old ideas (away from neoliberal capitalism)”

Russia:

Syriza is a leftist party with genetics, mentors and leaders who are unapologetically Marxism. Greece has had Communist parties were in power the 80’s and the civil war was fought by Communists. While the Soviet Union is now in the past, the people who ran and supported it are still very much alive. These ideological alliances mean that Russian, South American and European communists still band together whenever possible, lending financial, logistical and moral support whenever possible.

As indicated in Greece’s economic profile, it owes a significant amount of its income to Russian money. Tsipras will bear this in mind far more than his ideology when addressing this issue. Sanctions against Russia will inevitably make life more difficult for Greeks. No Greek leader will deliberately ostracise the Russian expatriates who use Greek banks as a safe haven from their own troubled politics and economy. The question of how much Russian security service money is involved in the Syriza victory will never be quantified unless another Vasili Mitrokin emerges. (Mitrokin revealed how Moscow propped up and supported left leaning regimes during the Cold War) Tsipras and Syriza undoubtedly accepted donations from a variety of sources but this is nothing extraordinary in politics. Being iconoclastic and different in his politics helps to attract donations from many sources but Tsipras does not have the personality of a puppet. Tsipras strongly identifies himself as European and sees himself as one to reform than to destroy or change alliances. He will accept the money, however.

What is telling, is Tsipras’ and Syriza’s interpretation of the Ukrainian/Crimean situation. Ukraine is fighting Russian-backed separatists in the east after Putin annexed Crimea when the Kremlin-allied Viktor Yanukovich was ousted as president during protests in Kiev. While touring Moscow, Tsipras was critical of the Ukrainian government because of fascist elements within it. He repeats this allegation in other speeches, going as far as suggesting that Poroshenko gives Nazi style salutes. In it’s press releases, Syriza blames Western European governments and special interests for Ukraine and has not voiced concern over Russia’s role.

Similarly of interest, Tsipras and Syriza’s use of the Russian word “Troika” (тройка) seems indicative of them playing to Russian audiences. This word has become popular among the radical politicians of Britain, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Portugal and Spain. Only a few of these politicians have been suggested as being backed by Moscow and at least one source claims to have proof of this. Ideologically the parties have little in common apart from use of the word and their anti-neo-liberal position.

The use of the word “Nazi” is the final bit of evidence gathered to suggest more than a hint of Russian influence. The Kremlin and its overt puppets have ramped up the use of this word over the past few years. Standard propaganda tactics suggest that the Kremlin would actively encourage all recipients of funds to lace their language with this evocative word. On the other hand, the financial crisis has in fact exposed more extreme fascists and extreme right wing movements. Islamophobia, antisemitism and other forms of racism and national socialism are genuinely on the rise and are a significant security concern. Golden dawn, a genuinely fascist Greek political party earned 6% of votes, by comparison the liberal democrats (still considered a significant party) in Britain now pick up 7% of votes. Syriza itself went from a single digit to ruling party in less than a decade.

Cyrillic is a form of Greek lettering and Greek tribes around the Black Sea form a part of Ukrainian and Russian history.

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Headline Actions for President Alexis Tsipras

· addressing the humanitarian crisis,
· restarting the economy,
· encouraging employment
· carrying out institutional reforms in the State

Long term goals for Alexis Tsipras

· Change ideas
· Change policies
· Change institutions

Alexis Tsipras’ term in office will be turbulent. He will be vocal at every stage, delighting leftists and frustrating opposition. He faces a conservative and neoliberal Europe abroad a struggling economy at home, continued capital flight and very high expectations from his supporters. He is comfortable with looking into the abyss of the “Grexit” from the Euro but his pragmatism will win over so long as the central European government is willing to continue negotiating. He is turning to everyone he can for help but he is proud of Greece’s prestige and independence and dedicated to remaining European. Lack of strong and genuine ideological allies within the Eurozone will be a limiting factor and Tsipras could end up a blip in the overall European political trend.

He will remind many pundits of deceased Venezuelan president, Hugo Chavez (who also was influenced by Guavera). It will be key to see if Tsipras follows a similar trajectory which involved a lot of consolidation of power.

References:

CIA World Fact Book
Fitch Ratings Agency
World Bank
NATO
SIPRI
WTO
Foreign Policy of think tank
Syriza’s website

European Left Speech
(http://youtu.be/UDVFT7RfCCQ)

Al Jazeera Interview
(http://youtu.be/PelAe0xrIL4)

The Guardian interview
(http://youtu.be/4C8-RSgKmWs)

Channel 4 (UK) interview
(http://youtu.be/J8HcEpiM_aQ?t=2m14s)

US Speech: Can the Eurozone be saved?(2013)
(http://youtu.be/YdqfSyYVsv8?t=50s)